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能見度監測系統操作維護及資料解析計畫

 專案計畫編號
 經費年度 109年度
 計畫經費 2,608千元
 預算科目 空氣品質監測
 專案開始日期 2020/08/07
 專案結束日期 2021/09/30
 專案主持人 張士昱
 主辦單位 監資處
 承辦人 張志偉
 執行單位 中山醫學大學
 專案分類 大氣空氣
 中文關鍵字 消光係數、散光係數、PM2.5化學成分、相對濕度
 英文關鍵字 Extinction coefficient, Scattering coefficient, PM2.5 chemical component, Relative humidity
 協同主持人 李崇德
 共同主持人
 計畫聯絡人 張士昱
 計畫聯絡電話 --
 計畫聯絡信箱 --
 專案審查者 張志偉
 專案審查時間 2021/09/22
 專案核對者 郭偉齡
 專案核對時間 1900/01/01

能見度監測系統操作維護及資料解析計畫

 中文摘要 本計畫主要執行環保署能見度監測網板橋(北)、西屯(中)、小港(南)三測站能見度設備操作與維護,建構能見度觀測資料庫,定期完成資料品質保證與品質管制(QA/QC)作業,並整合能見度監測網與環保署空氣品質測站等監測資料,提供光學監測儀器監測結果應用及解析。經ANOVA統計分析在95 %信賴區間內,三臺LPV-4透射式能見度儀經同址同步量測結果可視為相同,三臺NGN-2A開放氣流型散光儀同址同步測量結果亦沒有統計上的顯著差異。消光與散光係數資料完整性皆達94 %以上,並將觀測資料逐時回傳環保署CDX資料庫。LPV-4的觀測消光係數經統計方法推導的視程常數轉換為能見度視程(VR),此一方式可改善儀器觀測與人工觀測數值的落差,但能見度儀量測能見度與人工觀測能見度間仍存在方法上的差異。在吸光係數的應用上,發展CO/NOx、AAE與BC/PM2.5三維指標應用於辨別生質燃燒與交通源污染特徵。在相同PM2.5濃度下,相對濕度(RH)越高,消光係數也越大,此外在相同消光係數時,質量消光效率隨RH增加而增加,皆呈現PM2.5在高濕環境潮解後影響能見度。此外,本計畫區分不同能見度狀況下PM2.5和RH的特性和發生頻率,結果顯示在相對濕度 75 %且PM2.5  35 μg m-3的環境下,小港測站VR < 10 km的小時頻率高於其他測站。因此進一步透過ISORROPIA模式模擬低濕低PM2.5環境下氣膠含水量(ALWC),小港測站硝酸鹽與ALWC的相關性高於硫酸鹽,且小港測站硝酸鹽與ALWC濃度高於其他二測站,小港能見度衰減與硝酸鹽潮解有密切相關。基於現有量測數據評估臺灣能見度分布的可行性中,以多元迴歸方法配合零階相關及標準化迴歸係數判斷污染物影響力,建立空品資料與消光係數的迴歸關係,結果顯示推估與實測消光係數有相似趨勢,可用於模擬能見度的變化。以PM2.5化學成分應用revised IMPROVE迴歸式推估的消光係數與量測值相關性佳,顯示此方法可利用PM2.5化學成分結果估算能見度與評估任一化學組成減量對於能見度提升的效益。透過正矩陣因子法(PMF)解析三測站的污染源,然後以經相對濕度修正的PMF因子重建消光係數,以了解污染源在實際大氣環境中導致能見度下降的貢獻,在冬春季污染嚴重時期,三個地點重建消光係數的最大貢獻因子是經RH修正的硝酸鹽,結果突出硝酸鹽污染源控制在提高能見度政策中的重要性。
 中文關鍵字 消光係數、散光係數、PM2.5化學成分、相對濕度

能見度監測系統操作維護及資料解析計畫

 類型  檔名  說明
 期末報告  能見度監測系統操作維護及資料解析計畫_公開版.pdf(19.4MB)  
最新版公開日期: 2021/11/1 上午 12:00:00

Plan of visibility monitoring system operating maintenance and data analysis

  摘要 The objectives of this project included to maintain and operate the EPA visibility monitoring network (VNM) in Banqiao, Xitun, and Xiaogang stations, develop the VNM database, audit the date quality assurance/ quality control, analyze the VNM optical monitoring instrument data, and interpret the monitoring data between EPA air quality monitoring stations and VNM. The simultaneous in-situ measurements from three LPV-4 visibility transmissometers were regarded as the same for a 95 % confidence interval with ANOVA statistical analysis. There was also no statistically significant difference among three NGN-2A integrating nephelometer simultaneous in-situ measurements. The extinction and scattering coefficient data is above 94 % completeness. Further, the monitoring data is transferred to the CDX database of the EPA every hour. Furthermore, the difference between the instrumental monitored value, extinction coefficient of LPV-4, and the artificial observation value, visibility visual range (VR), is minilized by applying the statistic modified convert coefficient. In the application of the absorbance coefficient, the three-dimensional indicators of CO/NOx, AAE and BC/PM2.5 are developed to distinguish the characteristics of biomass combustion and traffic source pollution. Under the same PM2.5 concentration, the extinction coefficient was proportional to the relative humidity (RH). In addition, the extinction mass efficiency also increased with the RH at the same extinction coefficient. It showed that PM2.5 affects visibility after deliquescence in high-humidity environment. In addition, this project distinguished the characteristics and occurrence frequency by PM2.5 and RH at different visibility condition. The results indicated that the hour frequency of VR < 10 km under the environment of RH  75 % and PM2.5  35 μg m-3 at Xiaogang site was higher than other sites. At Xiaogang site, the aerosol liquid water content (ALWC) in the low humidity and PM2.5 environment, simulated by the ISORROPIA model, was correlated well with the nitrate than with the sulfate. The concentrations of nitrate and ALWC were much higher at Xiaogang site than that at other two sites. Visibility degradation at Xiaogang site was strongly related to nitrate deliquescence. In the feasibility assessment of the visibility distribution in Taiwan based on the existing measurement data, the multivariate regression method combined with the zero-order correlation and standardized regression coefficients determined the influence of pollutants and established the regression relationship between the air quality data and the extinction coefficient. The results show that the estimated extinction coefficient has a similar trend with the measured extinction coefficient, which can be used to simulate variations in visibility. The estimated extinction coefficient regressed by substituting the PM2.5 chemical compositions into the revised IMPROVE equation was well correlation with the measured value. It indicated that this method can use the PM2.5 chemical composition to estimate the visibility, and evaluate the effectiveness of reducing any chemical composition for visibility improvement. The positive matrix factorization (PMF) was used at three sites for source apportionment of pollution. Then the extinction coefficient was reconstructed from PMF factors modified with RH to understand the source contributions of the visibility degradation in the field atmospheric environment. In the serious pollution period of winter and spring, the highest contribution factor of the reconstructed extinction coefficient at three sites was the nitrate modified with RH. The results highlight the importance of nitrate pollution source control in improving visibility policies.
  英文關鍵字 Extinction coefficient, Scattering coefficient, PM2.5 chemical component, Relative humidity

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