This project accomplished: estimation and verification of the 2010 mobile source emissions; review the feasible emissions control strategies; status audits of 2011 local Environmental Protection Bureaus(EPBs) in conducting the mobile source management and control tasks, and performance audits of 20 cantonal dynamometer testing facilities.
In 2010 mobile source emissions inventory, the majority of PM10 and NOX emissions were from the heavy duty diesel trucks, next came from the private gasoline cars of which SOX, CO and Pb emissions were also significant; the 2-stroke and 4-stroke motorcycles and gasoline cars contributed more NMHC emissions than others. The trends of the pollutant concentrations at the ambient air quality monitoring stations and traffic area air quality monitoring stations decreased gradually by years except for PM2.5 and O3 which have increased slightly. The 2010 mobile source emissions were lower than those of the 2007 and have been decreasing since. EPA’s stringent emissions standards for new vehicles and the effective control programs for mobile sources emissions are the major contribution factors.
The measured data from the portable emission measurement system (PEMS) showed lower CO、HC emissions for gasoline cars and higher CO、NOX emissions for motorcycles comparing to the estimated TEDS emissions. The PEMS CO2 and fuel economy data agreed well with the laboratory dynamometer testing within a range of 0.95-1.08 factors. However, the CO and HC for newer cars showed difference between PEMS (lower) and laboratory’s (higher). The reasons may because the laboratory testing cannot reflect the real road conditions. Therefore, the standard testing cycle for newer cars may not be able to reflect the actual emissions for new cars. Tai-Chung City has higher traveling speed, vehicle idling time and averaged idling periods, CO2 emission rate, fuel economic and HC emission rates recorded than other areas during this project. Taipei and New Taipei City have the highest vehicular CO emissions. The vehicular testing results according to the number of traffic lanes: Tai-Chung City has highest fuel economic, CO2 and HC emissions rates in roadways with more than four lanes; Taipei and New Taipei City have higher CO emissions from the roadways which have four lanes or less. For the emissions testing of the “stop idling at red lights”, the results showed benefits in reducing 6.7~18 % CO2 emissions and improving fuel economy by 10.7~13.6%. In addition, the CO emissions can also be reduced by this “stop idling at red lights” policy.
In order to control the mobile source emissions, Taiwan EPA developed emissions control schemes for the air quality regions with baseline year 2007. The estimated emissions reduction in year 2016 and reductions goals for five western air quality regions were formulated. The control strategies are: expedite and expand the retirement program for old vehicles; promote the market shares of the low emission vehicles (i.e. electric vehicles); continue enforcing stricter emission standards for new vehicles and fuel oil standards; join the efforts of transportation agencies for better traffic control measures; and enforce the pollution controls for diesel vehicles etc.
Programs of enhancing the retirement strategies for 2-stroke motorcycles, diesel and gasoline vehicles were proposed by combing stricter standards for in-use vehicles, providing incentives for retiring old vehicles. The emission reductions and costs of the proposed programs were provided in order to achieve the reduction goals of future emissions. The “2010 Taiwan Clean Air Planning” and other international literature were reviewed in preparing the accelerating retirement policy.
The current mobile source control policies are as follows. On January 1, 2012, the 5th tier standards for diesel vehicles were implemented; with stricter smoke opacity, NOX and PM standards. Furthermore, all the new diesel vehicles are required to install On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) systems in accord with the EURO5 regulations. On October 1, 2012, the 5th tiers standards for gasoline vehicles were implemented with new PM emission standard (0.0050 g/km). The proposed 6th, 7th, and 8th tier standards for motorcycles are in legislation. No idling rule will be implemented in March 2012. In order to promote the usage of electric vehicles, this project proposed three directions for improvement: vehicle safety, convenience, and economic factors to attract the public to use electric cars.
This project completed the 2011 County/City Mobile Source Management Review included: reviewing seasonal audits of vehicles; on-site verification and a score report for the amount of the control work implemented by county/city. The enforcement of the 2-stroke engine scooter retirement was supported by the public as evident through the public surveys. The incentive information of the retirement of the 2-stroke engine scooters was obtained mainly from the motorcycle shops.
Twenty cantonal dynamometer testing facilities were audited during 2011, and 3 stations were graded as class C. The recommendations for the C stations are: training operators, following SOP and keeping good records. Through this project, the identification software system was checked and a third party verification system was conducted to ensure the quality of the sample films, thermocouple and pressure gauge which are used in the facilities.