Following the UNFCCC negotiation results, domestic and international policy trends, countries around the world are accelerating on climate actions, improving resilience for climate impacts, developing clean energy technologies, and creating green growth opportunities. This project has followed this trends and relevant responding strategies for the subsequent rule book negotiation process of Paris Agreement of the UNFCCC. The contents of this project are including legal basis along with multi-aspect strategies of sectoral mitigation, market/non-market mechanism, education propaganda, and international collaboration to further cross-link achievements of governments and industrial technologies to lead Taiwan towards a low carbon society. All scheduled tasks for this project have been completed as below:
1. Studying and Following the progress in the development of the Rule Book for the Agreement, proposing policy advice in responding to the Rule Book, and taking into account the development of mechanisms relevant to international and domestic laws, climate finance, technology and capacity building in our policies.
The rulebook crafting process of Paris Agreement is the most important task in recent climate negotiations. It has been in the process of expressing the methodology of rulebook including industrial development, scientific reports, and policy strategies. The key legal element for Taiwan to participate in this international environmental treaty is to analyze how Paris Agreement can connect with the UNFCCC under coordination work through finance, technology and capacity building mechanisms. Since Taiwan has proposed NAMAs as our national goal by 2020, we have followed COP decisions to determine domestic strategies in response to climate change impacts. In 2015, Taiwan announced the 2030 target and introduced the Greenhouse Gas Reduction and Management Act to formulate 2030 and 2050 as our national GHG emission reduction target year. The project has analyzed climate legislation and initiatives in worldwide for GHG control management and policy making reference.
2. Providing assistances to the Taiwan EPA in attending the UNFCCC meetings and relevant events/activities; strengthening communication channels and creating opportunities to make concrete contributions.
The Taiwan EPA coordinated the Executive Yuan delegation to participate in the UNFCCC activities. The personnel of this project have participated in Bonn SB46 climate conference and the TEM-M activities in Germany in May 2017. The project also has assisted Taiwan EPA to convene four COP delegation preparation meetings to discuss details including delegation assembly, registration procedures, flight and accommodation arrangement, exhibition booth and joint side events’ design and application. The personnel of this project joined with the delegation to participate in COP23 meetings in November, 2017, Bonn, Germany. In this meeting, we focused on the negotiation of rule book of Paris Agreement and the progress of Fiji Momentum for Implementation. The project also organized a side event and exhibition booth to demonstrate technology development capacity, policy and action plans in Taiwan to respond climate change impacts. The project promote Taiwan EPA’s policy article entitled “Addressing Climate Action on Multiple Fronts to Safeguard the Earth” to global society and proactively seeks global society support to Taiwan’s meaningful participation on the UNFCCC. Regarding to the topics of environment, climate change, energy security and national development, the project assists Taiwan EPA to seek potential cooperation opportunities with international channels.
3. Tracking low carbon initiatives from major countries, groups and private-public partnerships and promoting green growth conditions.
We accomplished tasks of information of climate ＆ energy policy and long-term low carbon emission strategy in response to climate change in main countries or groups, which is following the trends of Champions’ Marrakech Partnership for Global Climate Action and Post-2020 NDC partnership. We also analyzed the standpoints and climate actions of industrialized Parties, non-Annex I Parties, and COP meeting host country towards 2050 this year. We collected and concluded the outcome of rulebook negotiation of Paris Agreement and global stocktake in 2023 that will have influences on Taiwan. In coping with global green transition development, Taiwan is now formulating climate policies to encourage industry and research institutes involving green technology transfer and also proactively joining in international climate action partnership for green growth improvement and collaboration. Actions above are connected with the target in Article 2.1.c of Paris Agreement, “making finance flows consistent with a pathway towards low greenhouse gas emissions and climate-resilient development,” that is the meaningful measure for Taiwan participating the UNFCCC affairs. Taiwan has formulated “Forward-looking Infrastructure Development Program” as our policy tool towards green growth environment, which is introduced low carbon and green energy infrastructure for improving homeland resilience in response to climate change impacts and homeland security needs.
4. Attending 2017 international conferences on climate changes issues, and promoting and developing innovative partnerships for international climate actions.
The project organized and participated in the 2017 Malta Legal Forum on Adaptation to Climate Change in May, 2017, in Leuven, Belgium. The event help constructing a communication platform for governmental representatives and experts for climate change information sharing. Through conference discussion results, we will have an opportunity to fulfill commitments to the Paris Agreement through domestic management mechanism, international collaboration mechanism and partnership relationship. The forum concludes that governments should cooperate with cross-link to promote GHG management, and stimulate green growth policy and jobs to ensure climate resilience improvement. Under the incubation mechanism of this project, the oversea NGO was established to support Taiwan for participating COP activities. Meanwhile, we also participated in RINGO meeting during COP meetings to further discuss up-to-date climate change issues, e.g., water-food-energy nexus with representatives and experts.
5. Following the trends and carbon prices of international and regional carbon markets; studying and analyzing the latest development in international carbon pricing mechanisms.
The internationally carbon pricing mechanisms were analyzed in this project. In this report, we concluded contents of carbon pricing mechanism and how it will be operating. Meanwhile, we also listed legal framework and how it will be applied for carbon pricing in most of countries as our reference in the future to introduce carbon pricing scheme. The project analyzed background, policy trends, latest trading information, country/city market control scoping, and allowance strategies of carbon markets in selected countries. The project also tracked special or modified carbon market policies in the world, in order to plan a unique solution for Taiwan carbon market management system in the future. Through our work, we found that utilizing carbon market mechanism will benefit GHG emissions as a cost-efficient measure for public and private sectors; we also recommend to set annual cap in a deduction trend to further realize GHG emission reduction with carbon market.