## 高速鐵路隧道出口低頻噪音分析與影響之研究

中文摘要 | 近一個世紀以來，隨著經濟和技術的發展，世界上軌道運輸的發展相當快速，其在國民經濟和交通運輸方面相當重要，故很多國家已經有或準備開始高速鐵路計畫，而當高速列車通過隧道時，列車與隧道內的空氣之間發生強烈的相互作用，誘發一系列空氣動力學效應，同時也向外輻射出一「低頻脈衝波」，這種脈衝波產生的爆炸聲可達140~150dB甚至更高的噪音量，對周邊環境造成危害，這種低頻脈衝波稱為「微氣壓波或低頻噪音」。另高速公路行駛中車輛經過伸縮縫時，會造成較大的噪音及振動，民眾經常陳情，故依據其伸縮縫之特性，完成蒐集國內外伸縮縫噪音及振動之管制策略及改善措施。 工作成果包括： (一)完成國內外高速鐵路隧道出口及隧道內噪音預測與控制技術文獻、預測模式與分析方法、減輕對策與控制技術蒐集彙整。 (二)完成國內外高速鐵(公)路高架路段伸縮縫分析噪音及振動源特性、管制指標、量測方法、標準作業程序、改善措施及方法蒐集彙整。 (三)完成高速鐵路隧道出口低頻噪音實測與分析，量測地點包括：西湖三號隧道南口8點次、寶山4號隧道南口8點次及麻園坑隧道口32點次，合計共48點次。 (四)完成高速公路伸縮縫噪音實測與分析，量測伸縮縫形式及點次分別為：齒型50點次、角鋼50點次、無縫式50點次、模組型50點次及環氧樹脂伸縮縫40點次，共計240點次。 (五)在高速鐵路隧道出口低頻噪音理論模型部份，考量隧道內壓縮波與時間之關係、隧道裡氣壓波交流之情形及隧道阻塞比、列車速度之關係，初部建議可分別透過(3.1.2)式、(3.1.6)式及(3.2.2)式做為高速鐵路隧道出口低頻噪音理論模型；藉由前述理論模型計算出的壓縮波與微氣壓波的噪音值，經與數值類比及實驗測量值比較相差很小，說明上述公式是相對準確的。 (六)在隧道傳播理論模型部份，考量虛源決定的球面波的連續反射，初部建議以(6.5.17)式做為隧道傳播理論模型，理論解則由(6.1.7)式求得；在旁支模型部份，數值模擬隨距離的衰減過於平滑，預測衰減量比實驗值大，主要原因是由於沒有考慮波動性以及音線數太少，而理論解隨距離的衰減波動較大，預測衰減量比實驗值小，主要原因是由於模態耦合；在長空間部份，由最後的實驗部分可以看出，該種方法在充分考慮音波的頻率因素和波動性能的基礎上，可以更好的模擬出長空間音場的衰減趨勢，但是由於客觀實驗條件的約束，實際測量結果和理論模擬仍有一定的誤差。 (七)統計91年~98年之陳情資料：高速公路伸縮縫陳情案共計6件、隧道口陳情共計4件；高速鐵路因採用無接縫長焊鋼軌，故任何伸縮縫陳情案，隧道口陳情案共計4件。 | ||
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中文關鍵字 | 低頻噪音 |

## 基本資訊

專案計畫編號 | EPA-99-U1F1-02-101 | 經費年度 | 099 | 計畫經費 | 1900 千元 |
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專案開始日期 | 2010/03/12 | 專案結束日期 | 2010/12/31 | 專案主持人 | 陳谷汎 |

主辦單位 | 空保處 | 承辦人 | 林志純 | 執行單位 | 國立暨南國際大學 |

## 成果下載

類型 | 檔名 | 檔案大小 | 說明 |
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期末報告 | EPA99U1F102101正式版.pdf | 17MB |

## Analysis of Low Frequency Noise at High-speed Railway Tunnel Outlets and Its Effect

英文摘要 | Over the past half century, with the development of economy and technology, the progress of rail transportation around the world is also extraordinarily swift. Due to the important role railway plays in national economy and transportation, lots of countries have implemented or are prepared to implement a high-speed railway plan. When a high-speed train passes through a tunnel, a strong interaction between the train and the air in the tunnel occurs, inducing a series of aerodynamic effects and simultaneously radiating outward a bunch of “low frequency pulse waves”, which bring about a blast noise as high as 140~150 dB, or even higher, that seriously disturbs the tranquility of the surrounding environment. We call these low frequency pulse waves “micro-pressure waves or low frequency noise”. When a vehicle running on an expressway passes through an expansion joint on the ground, it tends to make a very loud noise and serious vibration, which often leads to petitions from the public. Therefore, based on the characteristics of the expansion joints on the highway, we have collected control policies and improvement measures against expansion joint noise and vibration adopted at home and abroad. The results include: 1.Completed the collection and integration of literature on noise prediction and control techniques, prediction models and analytical methods, and alleviation measures and control techniques against the noise produced at the tunnel outlet or in the tunnel of the high-speed railway at home and abroad. 2.Completed analyzing the characteristics of the noise and vibration sources of the expansion joint, control indicators, measurement methods, standard operating procedure (SOP), and the compilation and integration of materials concerning the improvement measures and methods for expansion joints on elevated sections of the high-speed railway (highway) at home and abroad. 3. Completed field measurements and analysis of the low frequency noise produced at the tunnel outlet of the high-speed railway. Totally 48 field measurements were made at various spots, including 8 measurements at the south outlet of Sihu No. 3 Tunnel, 8 measurements at the south outlet of Baoshan No. 4 Tunnel, and 32 measurements at the outlets of Mayuankeng Tunnel. 4. Completed field measurements and analysis of the noise produced at the expansion joint on the expressway. Totally 240 field measurements were made on various types of expansion joint, including 50 measurements on finger expansion joints, 50 measurements on angle expansion joints, 50 measurements on seamless expansion joints, 50 measurements on modular expansion joints, and 40 measurements on epoxy resin expansion joints. 5. In the part of the theoretical models of the low frequency noise produced at the tunnel outlet of the high-speed railway, in consideration of the relation between the compression waves in the tunnel and time, the interflow of the pressure waves in the tunnel, and the relation between the blockage ratio in the tunnel and the train speed, it is primarily suggested that equation(3.1.2), equation(3.1.6) and equation(3.1.2) be used as the theoretical models of the low frequency noise produced at the tunnel outlet of the high-speed railway. By comparison, the noise levels of the compression waves and micro-pressure waves calculated with the above theoretical models are very close to the measured values of numerical simulation and experiments, indicating that the above theoretical formulae are relatively accurate. 6. In the part of the theoretical model of noise propagation in a tunnel, in consideration of the continuous reflection of spherical waves determined by virtual sources, it is primarily suggested that equation(6.5.17) be used as the theoretical model of noise propagation in a tunnel. The theoretical solution is obtained through equation(6.1.7).In terms of the theoretical models of noise propagation in branches, the fluctuation of attenuation in numerical simulation with the increase of distance is so small that it can be predicted that the attenuations will be larger than the experimental values, which is mainly due to the lack of consideration of fluctuation and insufficient number of sound rays. On the other hand, since the fluctuation of attenuation in theoretical solution with the increase of distance is large, it can be predicted that the attenuations will be smaller than the experimental values, which is mainly due to the effect of model coupling. In the part of long enclosures, as shown by the results of experiments, with the consideration of the frequency factors and fluctuation of sound waves, this method can better simulate the attenuation trend of sound fields in long enclosures. However, due to the restriction of experimental conditions, certain deviations exist between the measured values and the theoretical simulation results. 7. Statistics of petition cases between 2002 and 2009: on the expressway – 6 cases against noise produced at expansion joints and 4 cases against noise produced at tunnel outlets; on the high-speed railway – no case against noise produced at expansion joints (due to the use of continuous welded rails on high-speed railways) and 4 cases against noise produced at tunnel outlets. | ||
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英文關鍵字 | Low Frequency Noise |