This final report has compiled the following specific information on PPCPs: (1) environmental occurrence, (2) toxicity/estrogenicity, (3) environmental risk assessment, (4) drug usage (including amount imported and used), (5) analytical method development grouping for coming projects. In addition, this report includes our analytical results on 6 selected quinolone antibiotics and 2 selected imidazole antibiotics, including LC and mass spec optimizing conditions and QA/QC (recovery test, matrix effect study, precision and accuracy, and method detection limit). The target compounds are nalidixic acid, flumequine, pipemidic acid, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, dimetridazole and metronidazole. For recovery, DI water and real water were used as blanks, the recoveries range from 92.5-107.3% and 87.8-118.9%, respectively. The method detection limits (MDL) all are ranging from 0.5-1.0 ng/L in DI water and real water.
Six rivers in Central Taiwan were examined using the established analytical methods including this year and last two year. Thirty-four antibiotics, 4 β-blockers and 4 β-agonists were detected in sample collected from six rivers.
Based on analyzed data, concentrations of pharmaceuticals found were comparable to those detected around the world and were range from ng/L - μg/L. Nalidixic acid (92%), flumequine (79%), metronidazole (96%), sulfadiazine (96%), sulfamethoxazole (100%), sulfathiazole (88%), sulfamethazine (92%), lincomycin (88%), clindamycin (83%) and erythromycin-H2O (83%) were detected most frequently in all taken samples (frequency of detection >79%).