The aims of the present project were to (1) investigate distribution of concerned chemicals in fifteen rivers around Taiwan, (2) simulate distribution patterns of certain chemicals in a specific river, and (3) propose management strategies for Taiwan release data of chemical substances. First, sediment and fish samples were collected from fifteen Taiwanese rivers (i.e., Nankan River, Toucian River, Keya River, Jhonggang River, Houlong River, Da-an River, Wu River, Beigang River, Puzih River, Yanshuei River, Erren River, Dian Bao River, Donggang River, Lanyang River and Shincheng River). Concentrations of Perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS), dicofol, glyphosate, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), nonylphenol (NP), bisphenol A (BPA), phthalate esters (PAEs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabrominated biphenyls (HBB), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metal and methylmercury were measured in collected samples and 18,758 analyzed data were obtained. The analyzed concentrations of some chemicals in sediments showed decreasing trend. Those results indicated that the control strategies of those chemicals are available to reduce their releasing into the environment. However, the concentrations of few chemicals (e.g., NP, BPA, PAEs and PBDEs) were higher than those in the previous investigated year, suggesting it was necessary to continuously monitoring their distribution trend. In the future, candidate chemicals with global concerns, high production volume, environmental hazards and human health effects could be further included for long-term investigation.
Second, assessments of the multiple media transport and health risk of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the Dianbao river basin and Yanshui river basin were performed with simulated PAEs levels in different environmental media. As to the results of health risk assessment based on groundwater pollution simulations in different scenarios, the main exposure routes were inhalation and dermal contact. The 95% UL of cancer risk and non-cancer risk in each scenario were all below the threshold of health hazard effects. In the part of management decision-making application tools, the distribution and correlation of specific pollutants at specific time points and specific media can be observed through hot spot analysis, Sankerry diagram, and river survey fingerprints, which can then be used as a reference for management decision-making.
Finally, the release management and system of toxic chemicals were completed this year: 1) explored the strategic management and the release inventory platform of five countries; 2) provide the suggestions for the local strategic release management of toxic chemicals and the structure of Taiwan Toxic Release Inventory; 3) explored the validation of the release reporting data of toxic chemicals and compiled the steps of uncertainty estimations; 4) held a expert meeting for discussing the strategies of toxic release inventory in Taiwan; 5) compiled the application tools for the release data of toxic chemicals of America and Europe; 6) DEHP, BPA, VCM, and NP were taken as examples for the integrated analyses of the Taiwan Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators (Taiwan RSEI) model; 7) DEHP, DBP, DecaBDE, BPA, and NP were taken as examples for trend visualization in the cross-database (the releases reporting, operation scale, and environmental fate of toxic chemicals); 8) provided the consultant for estimation, calculation methods, and data interface of toxic chemical releases.