In order to meet the national key policy of Net-Zero Emission Roadmap by 2050, Taiwan EPA continuously monitors the emission from ship and harbor area. This program helps EPA to focuses on updating the emission inventory at territorial sea and harbor area, by reviewing the latest international practices and control strategies, improving current emission estimation measures, and investigating the control effect of emission mitigation strategies. This program recommends several control strategies and plans to EPA to implement the shore power policy as well.
This program helped EPA to audit the air pollution fee from mobile sources, and allocated 20% to local government on air pollution control. As for the one-site fuel inspection of mobile sources, this program finished 7 sets of gasoline, 7 sets of diesel, 3 set of aviation fuel, and 3 sets of ship fuel inspection. These tests all meet the regulatory standards of “Amendment to the Standards for the Composition of Mobile Pollution Source Fuels”. This program also provides measures of control policies on mobile source by reviewing the international regulations and refining processes of petroleum, trends of alternative alcohol and biofuel, and even the fuel inspection of mobile source by local government.
The achievements of this program are summarized as follows:
1. Emission inventory of harbor area, airport area, and territorial sea was finished for 2021. Affiliated data like attribute of sources, activity factors, emission factors, emission was collected for the data bank.
2. The emission from airport during COVID-19 pandemic period was estimated 49% lower than before the epidemic. On the other hand, the emission from ship showed no significant difference.
3. The estimated emission from harbor showed that NOX and SOX emission at Keelung and Kaohsiung were higher than the others, and accounted for 12.9% and 9.6% of total SOX and 45.3% and 18.1% of total NOX, respectively.
4. Most requirements from Annex VI of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships （MARPOL） was legalized in Taiwan except the emission standard of ship engines. The divisions of sulfur control area in many countries were also reviewed, and could be designated through the International Maritime Organization or special enactment in Taiwan as well.
5. Through surveying the promotion of shore power in many counties and challenge we face in Taiwan, inter-ministerial collaboration and incentive measures to ship companies are necessary.
6. The implementation of NIP this year until November 2021, 47% of ships reduced their speed while approaching to Taiwan, 28 ships at Container Terminal 115 and Terminal 116 of Kaohsiung Harbor connected to shore power while berthing. The usage is significantly increase comparing to 2020.
7. Collecting procedures and charging rate of air pollution fee are preliminarily proposed. The charging fee is based on the reducing-emission measures of ship, like shore-power connection and low-sulfur fuel, to increase the willingness of ships to reduce their emission while approaching to Taiwan.
8. After surveying harbor charge of several countries, it is expected the competitiveness of Taiwan will be impacted if the entry fee of harbor is increased by 8 to 11%.
9. Audit of the air pollution fee of mobile sources from 2021 November to 2022 November was finished in this program. This program also helped to transfer the allocated fee to local government. As for maintaining the Air Pollution Fee Declaration System of mobile sources, 4 times of system weakness scanning showed that there is no medium to high risk to the system. This program also finished 31 times inspection of county-issued fuel amount and air-pollution fee charging, and no error were found.
10. Since there are several air pollutants like sulfur, benzene, and PAHs in gasoline and diesel, calculation formula adjustment of air pollution fee based on the fuel contents and “Amendment to the Standards for the Composition of Mobile pollution source Fuels” for mobile sources is proposed.
11. 14 sets of gasoline and diesel tests, and 6 sets of airline and ship fuel tests were finished in this program. All 20 sets of fuel sample met the “Amendment to the Standards for the Composition of Mobile pollution source Fuels”.
12. After reviewing the fuel control standards in many countries, the control standard in Taiwan has reached international level.
13. After reviewing the control standards, markets, and promotion of biofuel in many countries and Taiwan, the market of biofuel was affected during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, but has recovered from 2021.
14. After interviewing with 3 ship companies and 2 fuel suppliers, their view points on low-sulfur fuel were proposed. Supporting system in harbor area should be finished. Low sulfur fuel is still insufficient to supply because the refining industries are under the EIA.
15. Since the Coast Guard Administration, Ocean Affairs Council can assist the to implement ship inspections, offshore audit operations will be considered in the revision of Ship Pollution Improvement and Audit Principles.