To prevention the transmission of infectious diseases or solve the hazard caused by pests (such as mosquitoes, flies, cockroaches, moth flies, and bed bugs) to the home environment, we normally rely on chemical pesticides for control. For achieving environmental sustainability and effective pest control, the project explores the impact and prevention of climate change to environmental pests; the susceptibility monitoring of environmental agent components to discuss the coping strategies for the resistance; the analysis of international environmental agents to replace traditional research and development in environmental agent with green chemistry; and considers the current state of domestic environmental agents, exposure risk of the environment and human health, and the promotion of pest control technology integration to maintain human and environmental health.
The result: The investigation on the distribution of Dolichoderus thoracicus carried out by pest control operators reveals that 9 counties and cities increased to 14 from 2019 to 2022 in Taiwan, and the months for treatment is between May and September. The location of treatment is mostly private homes, gardens, farms, woodland, and campuses (97.50 %). Pest control operators have basic knowledge towards environmental management as well as basic attitude and behavior towards general prevention and treatment, but they know less about the ecological habit of Dolichoderus thoracicus (38.01 %) and willing to clean the environment after the treatment ( 2.19 %). The on-site investigation of Dolichoderus thoracicus shows the location is mainly campus, private homes, and fruit farms. Among them, the rate of finding Dolichoderus thoracicus on artificial facilities is the highest (54.95 %). Dolichoderus thoracicus uses natural or artificial facilities as the passage to spread from outdoor to indoor. Dolichoderus thoracicus prefers to nest in an environment with high hidden nature. Therefore, in the first control strategies, people must focus on cleaning environment to avoid its invading and nesting in their homes. In chemical control, professional personnel can use special environmental agents permitted by the Environmental Protection Agency to carry out a two-step method by contact insecticide and bait. The general public can use common environmental agents approved by the Environmental Protection Agency to effectively reduce the density of Dolichoderus thoracicus. In addition, prevention and treatment materials of non-traditional chemical agents, like essential oil and saponin, are suggested to be developed in the future to achieve the effect of killing ants or repellent and reduce the use of traditional chemical agents in order to implement the goal of the sustainable environmental development.
The testing result of susceptibility to the 10 environmental agent components (Cypermethrin, Tetramethrin, Permethrin, Deltamethrin, Chlorpyrifos, Fenitrothion, Pirimiphos-Methyl, Propoxur, Fipronil, and Imidacloprid) among wild strains, Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti, in Taiwan urban areas all shows low resistance (Resistance Ratio; RR < 10). Culex quinquefasciatus presents medium resistance to Tetramethrin (RR = 12.76), Armigeres subalbatus presents medium resistance to Tetramethrin and Deltamethrin (RR = 15.97及17.80), Blattella germanica presents medium resistance to Permethrin and Deltamethrin (RR = 10.92及10.44), Periplaneta americana shows low resistance to the 10 environmental agent components, Musca domestica presents high resistance to Tetramethrin and Permethrin (RR = 52.05-73.94) while presents severe resistance to Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin (RR = 423.54及994.00), medium resistance to Chlorpyrifos and Chlorpyrifos and high resistance to Pirimiphos-Methyl (RR = 20.14, 22.15 and 123.95) as well as medium resistance to Propoxur and Fipronil and high resistance to Imidacloprid (RR = 58.07, 24.88 and 10.02). Chrysomya megacephala presents low resistance to the 10 environmental agent components. Drosophila melanogaster presents medium resistance to Permethrin (RR = 23.87), medium resistance to Chlorpyrifos (R = 11.83), medium resistance to Propoxur (R = 13.94), and medium resistance to Imidacloprid (R = 14.03). Telmatoscopus albipunctatus and Cimex lectularius both present low resistance to the 10 environmental agent components.
The study has completed the collection and analysis of international environmental agents to replace traditional research and development in environmental agents with green chemistry. There are 256 records of literature, including microbial control, essential oil, insect growth regulator, pheromone, and others. Cooperating with the current state of domestic environmental agents to carry out environmental and human health exposure risk analysis, integrate pest control technology, and implement applicability testing and discussion on the regulated methods for efficacy testing (liquid, emulsion ＆ oil in water, wettable powder, and bait) as the reference for the future announcement. The implementation progress of the project has achieved 100.00% of the whole content and 100% met the end report. Besides, we have completed collecting the data of using green chemistry to replace traditional environmental agents among international environmental agents as well as one case of emerging pest investigation (Dolichoderus thoracicus) and requirements for two working sessions.